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Guides to Analyzing Specific Types of Research Articles
General Study Design Resources
Are These Results Trustworthy? A Guide for Reading the Medical Literature
Alahdab F, Morrow A, Alsawas M, Murad MH. Are these results trustworthy? A guide for reading the medical literature. Avicenna J Med. 2017;7(2):46-50.
Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research, NIH
Literature Reviews: Types of Clinical Study Designs
Georgia State University Library
Librarian: Sharon Leslie
Outcomes Research: Myths and Realities
Krumholz HM. Outcomes research: myths and realities. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. 2009; 2: 1-3
- This editorial defines outcomes research.
Study Design I
Levin KA. Study design I. Evid Based Dent. 2005;6(3):78-9.
Study Design II. Issues of Chance, Bias, Confounding and Contamination
Levin KA. Study design II. Issues of chance, bias, confounding and contamination. Evid Based Dent. 2005;6(4):102-3.
Types of Clinical Study Designs
Georgia State University Library
Types of Studies
SUNY Downstate EBM Tutorial from the clickable transparency Dartmouth Biomedical Libraries website
Types of Study in Medical Research: Part 3 of a Series on Evaluation of Scientific Publications
Röhrig B, du Prel J-B, Wachtlin D, Blettner M. Types of study in medical research: part 3 of a series on evaluation of scientific publications. Deutsches Arzteblatt International. 2009;106(15):262-268. Available via PubMed Central
Understanding Research Study Designs
University of Minnesota Health Sciences Libraries Bio-Medical Library
Librarian: Jonathan Koffel
Types of Studies / Advantages & Disadvantages
A Background to Clinical Trials video
European Communication on Research Awareness Needs ECRAN project
Comparison of Clinical Trial Phases
Research Coordinator Orientation, University of Pittsburgh, 2002
Lessons From and Cautions About Noninferiority and Equivalence Randomized Trials
Gøtzsche PC. Lessons from and cautions about noninferiority and equivalence randomized trials. JAMA. 2006;295(10):1172-4.
The n-of-1 Clinical Trial: the Ultimate Strategy for Individualizing Medicine?
Lillie EO, Patay B, Diamant J, Issell B, Topol EJ, Schork NJ. The n-of-1 clinical trial: the ultimate strategy for individualizing medicine? Personalized medicine. 2011;8(2):161-173.
N-of-1 Randomized Controlled Trials: Interview With Dr Gordon Guyatt
JAMAevidence: Using Evidence to Improve Care podcast by Gordon Guyatt, M.D. &
Dr Joan Stephenson. podcast
Snapinn SM. Noninferiority trials. Curr Control Trials Cardiovasc Med. 2000;1(1):19-21.
Observational Studies Lecture
EBM Teacher - Terry Shaneyfelt
Study Design III: Cross-sectional Studies
Levin KA. Study design III: Cross-sectional studies. Evid Based Dent. 2006;7(1):24-5.
Study Design IV: Cohort Studies
Levin KA. Study design IV. Cohort studies. Evid Based Dent. 2006;7(2):51-2.
Study Design V. Case–control Studies
Levin KA. Study design V. Case-control studies. Evid Based Dent. 2006;7(3):83-4.
Superiority Trials, Non-inferiority Trials, and Prisoners of the 2-sided Null Hypothesis
Sackett DL. Superiority trials, noninferiority trials, and prisoners of the 2-sided null hypothesis. Evid Based Med 2004;9:38-39.
Understanding Controlled Trials: Why are Randomised controlled Trials Important?
Sibbald B, Roland M. Understanding controlled trials. Why are randomised controlled trials important?. BMJ. 1998;316(7126):201.
Understanding Equivalence Trials (and Why We Should Care)
Lee JS. Understanding equivalence trials (and why we should care). CJEM 2001;2(3):194-196.
What is an “n-of-1” Trial?
Sedgwick P. What is an “n-of-1” trial? BMJ 2014;348:g2674.
What is a Randomized Controlled Trial in Medical Research?
What is a randomized controlled trial in medical research? Medical News Today. 2014 Sep.
Cluster Randomized Trials
NIH Collaboratory Living Textbook of Pragmatic Clinical Trials
Appraising the Literature: Overview of Study Designs
Barbara M. Sullivan, PhD, Department of Research, NUHS & Jerrilyn A. Cambron, PhD, DC Department of Researach, NUHS
POEM or DOE?
Is the article or guideline a DOE or a POEM?
POEM (Patient Oriented Evidence that Matters)
- Quality of Life
- Recovery Time
- Length of hospital stay
- Pain scale
DOE (Disease Oriented Evidence)
- Cardiac biomarkers
- Blood pressure reading
- LDL, HDL
- Blood sugar
- Bone density
- Other laboratory Tests
Slawson DC, Shaughnessy AF, Ebell MH, Barry HC. Mastering medical information and the role of POEMs--Patient-Oriented Evidence that Matters. J Fam Pract. 1997;45(3):195-6.