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Citing Resources

Tips and Tools for properly citing resources

NLM Resources

Examples of NLM citations:

Journal Article:

Format: Author(s). Article title. Journal Title. Publication Date; volume(issue):page numbers.

Buckley PT. Health coaching good for your patients and your practice. How to cater to a growing segment of patients who want partners in their quest for health. Med Econ. 2010 Nov 19;87(22):60-1, 68-70.

Journal Article with more than 3 Authors:

Format: First 3 authors, et al. Article title. Journal Title. Publication Date; volume(issue):page numbers.

Amaral E, Zeferino A, Nadruz W, et al. Successful accomplishment of educational goals with clinical experience at public primary care facilities.Med Teach. 2007 Sep;29(6):600-5.

Book:

Format: Author(s). Book title. Place of publication: Publisher; year of publication. Total # of pages.

Jenkins PF. Making sense of the chest x-ray: a hands-on guide. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005. 194 p.

Book Chapter:

Format: Author(s). Book title. (ed., if applicable). Place of publication: Publisher; year of publication. Chapter Title; Pages.

Riffenburgh RH. Statistics in medicine. 2nd ed. Amsterdam (Netherlands): Elsevier Academic Press; c2006. Chapter 24, Regression and correlation methods; p. 447-86.

e-Book: [AccessMedicine/AccessPharmacy/Pharmacy Library, plus other e-books]:

Format: Author(s). Book title [method of access, typically Internet]. ed., if applicable. Place of publication: Publisher; year of publication. Citation date. Available from URL.

Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, et al., editors. Harrison's online [Internet]. 16th ed. Columbus (OH): McGraw-Hill Companies; c2006 [cited 2006 Nov 20]. Available from: http://www.accessmedicine.com/resourceTOC.aspx?resourceID=4.

Web Page [home page]:

Format: Authors. Web site title. [Internet]. Place of publication (in brackets if inferred). editors. Copyright dates. [last revision date; date cited]. Available from URL.

D'Alessandro DM, D'Alessandro MP. Virtual Pediatric Hospital™: a digital library of pediatric information [Internet]. [Iowa City (IA)]: Donna M. D'Alessandro; c1992-2007 [revised 2006 Jul 20; cited 2007 Feb 20]. Available from: http://www.virtualpediatrichospital.org/.

Web Page [secondary page]:

Format: Authors. Web site title. [Internet]. Place of publication (in brackets if inferred). Copyright dates. Secondary page title; last revision date; [cited date]; [number of screens]. Available from URL.

AMA: helping doctors help patients [Internet]. Chicago: American Medical Association; c1995-2007. AMA launches exclusive partnership with the ReachMD Channel for medical professionals; 2007 Mar 26 [cited 2007 Mar 28]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/17469.html.

Database/Retrieval System [Cochrane Reviews]:

Format: Authors. Web site title. Date of first publication [amended date; date cited]. In: database name [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. Copyright date - . Size of file. Available from URL.

Bunyavejchevin S, Phupong V. Laparoscopic surgery for presumed benign ovarian tumor during pregnancy. 2006 Oct 18 [amended 2007 Jun 14; cited 2007 Feb 20]. In: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [Internet]. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Inc. c1999 -   . 129K. Available from: http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD005459/pdf_fs.html Record No.: CD005459.

Database/Retrieval System [Essential Evidence Plus]:

Format: Authors. Web page title. Date of first publication (omit if not available) [amended date; date cited]. In: database name [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. Copyright date. Size of file (omit if not available). Available from URL.

Lambert, FB. Autism. [amended 2012 Jul 7; cited 2012 Sep 25]. In: Essential Evidence Plus [Internet]. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Inc. c2012. Available from http://www.essentialevidenceplus.com/content/eee/835.

Drug Monographs:

Format: Authors. Web site title. Date of first publication [amended date; date cited]. In: database name [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. Copyright date - . Size of file. Available from URL.

Abacavir. [cited 2011 Oct 28]. In: AccessPharmacy, [Internet]. [place unknown]: McGraw-Hill. c1978- . Available from:http://www.accesspharmacy.com/drugContent.aspx?mid=5541.

Drug Monographs from Lexi-Comp or Micromedex: 

Lexi-Comp and Micromedex have many different databases inside the resource. You must include the individual database name. 

Format: Authors. Web site title. Name of database. Date of first publication [amended date; date cited]. In: database name [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. Copyright date - . Size of file. Available from URL. 

Lansoprazole. DrugDex Evaluations. [updated 2013 Nov 5; cited 2013 Nov 27]. In: Micromedex 2.0 [Internet]. Ann Arbor, MI: Truven Health Analytics. c2013. Available from http://www.micromedexsolutions.com/

Drug Monographs from Natural Standard (now Natural Medicines): 

Format: Authors. Web site title. Name of database. Date of first publication [amended date; date cited]. In: database name [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. Copyright date - . Size of file. Available from URL. 

Bismuth. Natural Standard. [cited 2014 Nov 10]. In: Natural Standard [Internet]. Somervile, MA: Natural Standard. c2014. Available from https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/about-us/contact-us.aspx 

UptoDate:

Johbson MD. Second-generation antipsychotic medications: pharmacology, administration, and side effects. Post TW, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UpToDate Inc. http://uptodate.com (Accessed on January 02, 2017.)

Practice Guideline Synthesis (accessed from National Guideline Clearinghouse):

Format:  Author. Guideline synthesis: guideline title. In: National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) [Web site]. Place of publication: Publisher of guideline; [citation date]. Available from: http://www.guideline.gov

National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC). Guideline synthesis: Screening for breast cancer. In: National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) [Web site]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ); [cited 2010 May 7]. Available: http://www.guideline.gov.

Other Guidelines:

If citing the full guideline, then cite the guideline as it appeared in the journal.

Format:  Author(s). Article title. Journal Title. Publication Date; volume(issue):page numbers.

American College of Obstetrics & Gynecology. ACOG practice bulletin no. 120: Use of prophylactic antibiotics in labor and delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Jun;117(6):1472-83.

DailyMed:

Format: Pharmaceutical company.  Label. Publication Date [revision date; date cited]. In: Database Name [Internet]. [Copyright date] - , [page numbers]. Place of Publication: Publisher. Available from URL.

Sanofi-Aventis U.S. LLC. Ambien cr (zolpidem tartrate) tablet, coated. 2007 [rev. 2007 Sep; cited 2009 Apr]. In: DailyMed [Internet]. [2005] -   . [about 20 p.]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). Available from: http://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?id=5420

Essential Evidence Plus InfoPOEM:

Format: Authors. Web page title. Date of first publication (omit if not available) [Database name] [amended date; date cited]. In: database name [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher. Copyright date. Size of file (omit if not available). Available from URL.

Ebell, MH. Empiric treatment of onychomycosis with terbinafine is most cost-effective strategy. [Daily POEMs] [cited 2017 Jan 03]. In: Essential Evidence Plus [Internet]. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Sons, Inc. c2017. Available from https://www.essentialevidenceplus.com/content/poem/190101 

The NLM style requires that items be cited either parenthetically or with superscript numbers for attribution. The systems are:

  • Author-Year system
    • Example at end of sentence: (Johnson 2011)
    • Example in text: Johnson et al. (2011) found that the lack of copyright information available provided a direct correlation to the comfort of faculty members interpreting copyright law.
  • Sequence system
    • […] last day¹.
    • This system means that the reference list is in the order that references appear in the paper
  • Author-sequence system
    • […] last day¹.
    • This system means that author names are ordered alphabetically in the reference list, regardless of when they appeared in the text.

Full details are available in the Introduction to Citing Medicine.

If you’re using EndNote, keep in mind it’s not an “import it and forget it” tool. You have some things to verify before signing off on the citations, since it only knows what you tell it (or what the database tells it). Check the following before finalizing a paper:

1)         Reference type. Make sure each reference in EndNote says “journal article” or whatever it is you’re citing. Sometimes it may come through as a generic reference, or even serial, and the citation will be incorrect. Fixing your reference type will hopefully account for most issues. 

Sample journal citation:

Ulbrich TR, Dula CAC, Green CG, Porter K, Bennett MS. Factors influencing community pharmacists' enrollment in a state prescription monitoring program. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2010;50(5):588-94.

2)         # of authors included. If over six authors, leave the first 3 in the record and say “et al” afterwards.

3)         Year of publication is after the journal abbreviation. 

4)         Your journal title is abbreviated. Search PubMed for the journal title to determine what the abbreviation is. 

Check your results with a standard NLM style citation to ensure the material is all there and correctly formatted. Especially watch for article title translation. Items which should be capitalized are often not (acronyms, program names, etc.)

A special note about web page citations.

Web page citations are notoriously tricky in EndNote. You need to include in your reference:

  • the last updated date (if available)
  • the date cited
  • format [Internet]
  • the name of the official web site
  • title of the page you're citing
  • copyright dates
  • Number of screens is the number of times you can press the page down key before you get to the bottom of the page.
  • URL of the page

echnical Report:

Format:

Authors. Title of report. Ed. Place of publication: Publisher; year of publication. (Publication ID number). 

National High Blood Pressure Education Program (US). The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Rev. ed. Bethesda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (US); 2005. 48 p. (NIH publication; no. 05-5267).

Article in Press:

Format:

Authors. Article title. Journal title. Forthcoming year.

Savinainen KJ, Helenius MA, Lehtonen HJ, Visakorpi T. Overexpression of EIF3S3 promotes cancer cell growth. Prostate. Forthcoming 2006.

Practice Guideline Synthesis (accessed from National Guideline Clearinghouse):

Format:

Author. Guideline synthesis: guideline title. In: National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) [Web site]. Place of publication: Publisher of guideline; [citation date]. Available from: http://www.guideline.gov

National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC). Guideline synthesis: Screening for breast cancer. In: National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) [Web site]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ); [cited 2010 May 7]. Available: http://www.guideline.gov.

Other Guidelines:

If citing the full guideline, then cite the guideline as it appeared in the journal.

Format:

Author(s). Article title. Journal Title. Publication Date; volume(issue):page numbers.

American College of Obstetrics & Gynecology. ACOG practice bulletin no. 120: Use of prophylactic antibiotics in labor and delivery. 
Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Jun;117(6):1472-83.

Handheld software:

Format: Name of company that licensed the software, (name of PDA book or database). Publisher. Publisher; version and/or date of program accessed.

Example:

Lexi-Comp, Inc. (Lexi-DrugsTM ). Lexi-Comp, Inc.; January 29, 2011.

Databases/Online/On-Desktop:

Format: Platform accessed, database accessed, publisher location: publisher; date accessed.

Example:

Lexi-Comp OnlineTM , Pediatric & Neonatal Lexi-Drugs OnlineTM , Hudson, Ohio: Lexi-Comp, Inc.; January 29, 2011.

To cite a specific drug monograph, put the name of the monograph at the front of the citation. 

Epinephrine. Lexi-Comp OnlineTM , Pediatric & Neonatal Lexi-Drugs OnlineTM , Hudson, Ohio: Lexi-Comp, Inc.; January 29, 2011.

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