Instructions for the Written Submission:
The literature should be cited within the text of your paper and in a literature cited section at the end of the paper. You should NOT cite a paper by including the title of the article within the text of your paper. You can cite within the text using the citation-sequence system or the citation-name system. Either system will be accepted for your paper in this course. If your entire paragraph is focused upon one article, you just need to cite the article once in the paragraph in the first sentence about the article.
The citation-sequence system utilizes placing a superscript number at the end of the first sentence mentioning a resource. You may also use a number in parentheses at the end of the first sentence. You would begin with the number one and progress from that point. In your literature cited section, resources are placed in numerical order not by alphabetical order of the first author.
The superscript number system uses a superscript number at the end of the sentence to cite a particular resource. A variation of this method places the number in brackets at the end of the sentence. In the literature cited section of the paper, resources are listed in numerical order. This order is based on the order resources are cited within the paper. Resources are not placed in the alphabetical order of the first author as in the citation name method.
Drug A was found to be more effective than drug B in the previous study2.
Drug A was found to be more effective than drug B in the previous study (2).
The following article uses the numerical system for citing within the text of the paper.
1. Maris P, Blomme A, Palacios AP, et al. Asporin Is a Fibroblast-Derived TGF-β1 Inhibitor and a Tumor Suppressor Associated with Good Prognosis in Breast Cancer. PLoS Med. 2015;12(9):e1001871. Availalable from: http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001871&representation=PDF
The citation-name system is the other possible method to use to cite your references within the text.
At the beginning of a sentence you would use:
Smith (2009) studied the effects of ….
Smith and Jones (2009) studied the effects of ….
Folkman, et al. (2005) studied the effects of ….
At the end of a sentence you would use:
… found the first drug to be most effective (Smith, 2009). … found the first drug to be most effective (Smith and Jones, 2009). … found the first drug to be most effective (Folkman, et al., 2005).
An example of the citation-name can be found in the following chapter of this e-book:
Ferretti J, Köhler W. History of Streptococcal research. In: Ferretti JJ, Stevens DL, Fischetti VA, editors. Streptococcus pyogenes: basic biology to clinical manifestations [Internet]. Oklahoma City (OK): University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center; 2016-. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK333430/. Do not hyperlink your cited resources as in this resource.
For more help citing resources within the literature cited section of the paper, see the Citing Resources library guide.